[Abstract] Railway is an important basic industry of the country, and railway transportation is the backbone of an integrated transportation system. Although China's railway construction has a history of hundreds of years, its development has been tortuous and its material and technological foundation is weak. The railway transportation industry has become the focus and difficulty of state-owned enterprise reform in recent years. Then, how to explore a development path that conforms to national conditions and road conditions in combination with your own development strategy is a topic of the times that is of great theoretical and practical significance.
Keywords: railway; transportation; development
According to the "Research Report on China's Railway Transport Market Research Report 2006", with the deepening of reform and opening up and the adjustment of the economic and industrial structure, transportation enterprises have shown unprecedented vitality and various transportation modes have developed rapidly. Although the volume of railway transportation has increased year by year, the market share has decreased year by year, and railways are facing increasingly severe challenges. In various sectors of the national economy, especially in the transportation sector, the development of railway transportation has lagged. This situation is incompatible with the status of “railway is an important infrastructure of the country, an important basic industrial sector of the national economy, and the backbone of an integrated transportation system. The lagging effect of transportation development on economic development obviously exists.
I. Status of China's railway transportation industry
China's railway transportation industry has a history of 127 years. Compared with high-tech industries such as computers, communications, and biology, it is a traditional industry. In the 21st century, the world's railway transportation industry is changing from a traditional industry to a modern industry. At a high starting point, railways in developed countries in the world have completed the upgrade from traditional industries to modern industries in a new way and in a short time, so that the traditional industry of railways has shown a new look. The construction of China's railway transportation industry is not too late, but compared with developed countries in the world, the gap is huge and there are still many problems.
Before the reform and opening up, the national railway implemented a plan management system of "integration of government and enterprise". This management system is in line with the overall foundation of the national macro-planned economy, as well as the railway's own operating environment and conditions. At that time, China's economy and technology were lagging behind, and there was a serious shortage of capital resources. It was impossible to prioritize the development of aviation and road transportation that required high capital and technology intensiveness. Rail transportation suitable for China's national conditions and low freight rates had a monopoly advantage for a long time. Any challenges.
After entering the new era, the national economic operating system has changed from a planned economy to a market economy, and many problems have emerged in the railway transportation industry. These problems are concentrated in the shortage of transportation capacity. The shortage of transport capacity is, on the one hand, the objective existence of the basic situation of the railway's relatively weak physical foundation, and on the other hand, the growing demand for passenger and freight transportation. Under the combined effect of the two, the problem of rail transport capacity shortage is inevitable.
In the 1990s, the huge freight demand erupted from the whole society was pressing on the railway, and the transportation of important raw materials such as oil, cotton, grain, coal, and phosphate rock, which were urgently needed for the development of the national economy, was severely hindered, which affected the power supply gap in the eastern region. Forced many factories to stop production. The country suffered huge losses due to insufficient railway development. At the same time, for some regional railway passenger trains, on the one hand, some backward areas do not open railway transportation at all; on the other hand, they are generally overcrowded, especially on major holidays. The overall tension of passenger transport has become a serious social problem.
Problems in the railway transportation industry
First of all, the overall scale of China's railways is inadequate and development across regions is uneven. Although China's railway transportation industry has developed rapidly in the 60 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, in recent years, with the further depth of market economic reform and the growth rate of the national economy, many problems have emerged in the railway transportation industry. The problem is concentrated in the insufficient development of the overall scale of the railway, resulting in a shortage of transport capacity. At present, with the rapid development of China's national economy, the huge passenger and freight demand erupting from the whole society is pressing the railway together, which makes the contradiction between railway transportation capacity and traffic volume prominent, and the consequences caused by insufficient railway transportation capacity are even more visible. At the same time, the current status of China's railways is uneven and uneven. The railways in the eastern region are more developed, while the railways in the central and western regions, especially in the western region, are relatively backward, and even some backward regions have not opened railway transportation at all. This reality will not be conducive to the coordinated development of various regions, and will also have an adverse impact on the healthy development of the national economy.
Secondly, the unknown nature of the railway transportation industry has hindered the healthy development of the railway transportation industry. Under the current management and management system of railways in China, it is unclear whether the railway transportation industry is a purely public welfare industry or a market entity in the market economy system, and its attributes are in a vague state. The direct consequence of this unknown property is that people do not consider the railway transportation industry as an enterprise, and believe that the railway transportation industry has to bear more social responsibilities. Even if the railway transportation industry fails to make ends meet, the government should provide financial subsidies. It is precisely this long-term attribute that is unknown, which causes the rail transport industry to lack market competition ability and lose the passion and motivation to reduce costs and create profits. At present, although with the continuous reform of state-owned enterprises, the Ministry of Railways has delegated many operating rights and other related rights to railway transportation enterprises, this is only a nominal devolution. Rail transport companies are far from being market players.
Third, high monopolies have led to a lack of competition within the railway system and poor service quality. Although China's railway transportation industry has undergone a restructuring of the modern enterprise system, due to the lack of correct guidance for the reform, it has had very little effect after consuming huge reform costs in repetition. The monopoly of state-owned capital of enterprises has not fundamentally changed, and a relatively independent operating system has not yet been established, and it still belongs to monopoly state-owned enterprises. Monopoly causes the lack of competition mechanism inside the railway system, stifles its competitive vitality, makes it invisible and unresponsive in the face of increasingly fierce market competition, which is one of the main reasons for the decline in the efficiency of the railway transportation industry.
Finally, the safety management of small stations along the railway has disadvantages such as lagging management and lack of continuity. The safety of small stations along the railway line occupies a very important position in the safety of railway transportation, which not only affects the production efficiency and economic benefits of the railway transportation industry itself, but also has a significant impact on social politics and economy. At present, the safety management of the small stations along the line at the grass-roots stations and sections includes passive management and "administration by punishment". After the accident, the full-time safety personnel at the station and section generally punished the relevant personnel after conducting a safety summary analysis without conducting various safety business guidance and education. This alone