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Analysis on the Impact of Difficulties of Public Utilities on Public Economic Management in China

编辑: 毕业论文 Release time: 2016-08-19 Editor: Graduation Thesis

Public utilities are an important infrastructure in the national economy, which not only promotes social and economic prosperity and development, but is also the basis for people to live and work in peace. The government's management of public utilities is also part of public economic management. In recent years, China attaches great importance to the management of public utilities, which greatly promotes the development of public utilities, but also faces many difficulties and obstacles. This requires the government to improve the overall public economic management method and content. This article analyzes the reasons for the current state of public utility development and the difficulties in reform and development of China, and analyzes the reasons, and puts forward some policy recommendations for the improvement of public economic management.

Public utilities include: public facilities such as public transportation, water supply, drainage, heating, gas supply, sewage treatment, roads and bridges, municipal facilities, environmental sanitation, waste treatment and urban greening. Since the reform and opening up, especially after entering the 21st century, China's public utilities have developed rapidly and the momentum is very good, although there are still many problems and difficulties.

(I) Basic situation of the development of public utilities in China

1. Since the reform and opening up, China's public utilities have experienced three development stages. A long time before the reform and opening up, the government pursued the “Proactively Promote Industrialization and Relatively Suppress Urbanization” policy, and the construction of public facilities is in a supporting position for industry. Since the 1990s, the public utility industry has gradually got rid of the constraints of the planning system. The implementation of a series of reforms has greatly promoted the development of public utilities. The three phases since the reform and opening up are roughly as follows: the first phase, from 1978 to 1992, began to explore changes in the operating methods of public enterprises, and strived to gradually improve the investment and financing structure and price system, but the government management model did not change fundamentally; In the second stage, from 1992 to 2001, a modern enterprise system was established, and foreign capital and private capital began to participate in the management of public enterprises on a large scale. Although public enterprises are actively exploring modern operating mechanisms, the management system has not changed substantially, and government and enterprises have failed to Completely separated; in the third stage, from 2001 to the present, under the leadership and support of the central government, the market-oriented reform of public facilities has been fully implemented, property rights have been gradually standardized, investors and operators have been selected through open tendering, and the franchise system has been gradually established and improved.

2. Achievements in the development of public utilities in China.

First, the investment in the public utilities industry has grown rapidly, and the number of public utilities has increased significantly. Second, in the development of public utilities, a diversified investment and financing structure has been initially established. Third, the competition pattern in the public utility market has begun to emerge, and service quality and economic efficiency have gradually improved. In recent years, the market-oriented reform of public utilities has broken the monopoly position of the government in providing public services exclusively. The market has gradually shifted from natural monopoly to effective competition. By establishing an open, fair and just market competition environment, the government's financial pressure has been eased. Stimulating the enthusiasm of the company's operation, urging the company to improve its business philosophy and improve the efficiency and quality of public services.

(2) Difficulties in the development of public utilities

1. From the perspective of the operation of public utilities, in terms of water supply and drainage, water supply companies, especially town-level water plants, have not been provided with special funds for technological transformation, equipment upgrades, expansion and reconstruction of water supply due to lack of financial support. Difficult to support economically; public transport, lack of industrial policy guidance, existing bus companies due to economic benefits, weak succession, lack of close connection and coordination between government investment and industry supervision, in performing regulatory functions and achieving The government ’s public economic goals, such as sharing rates, and alleviating urban traffic congestion, are more difficult; in terms of city appearance, environmental sanitation, and garbage disposal, the functions of the environmental sanitation department are not complete, the two-level urban management is disconnected, and the municipal government ’s functional management department guides, The functions of inspection and coordination are difficult to exert, and the sanitation staff has a low cultural level, weak technical strength, and few basic research work, which hinders the development of sanitation utilities; the aging infrastructure is widespread.

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