Abstract: China's growing international trade activities require a large number of highly-skilled international trade professionals. How to establish an efficient talent training model in higher vocational colleges is the key to higher vocational education. Based on the orientation of talent cultivation and social post requirements, this article puts forward new ideas for constructing an international Jiayi professional skills training system from five aspects: teaching reform, school-enterprise cooperation, dual certificate system, experimental training, and teacher building.
Keywords: international economy; international trade
First, accurate positioning is the prerequisite for talent training
(I) Orientation of Talent Cultivation in Higher Vocational Education
Since the mid-1990s, China's higher vocational education has entered a period of rapid development, and the number of colleges and universities and the scale of students have increased at an average annual rate of more than 20%. Statistics from China's Ministry of Education in 2008 showed that there were 1,036 vocational colleges and universities in the country, and enrollment and enrollment in higher vocational education accounted for half of the higher education. ” 本科压缩型 ” 和 ” 岗位技能型 ” 中取得平衡，既强调学生实践能力的提高，还注重学生后续可持续发展能力的培养，是探索高职高专人才培养模式的首要问题。 However, due to the influence of traditional concepts, the whole society's understanding of higher vocational education is still far from being in place. The current college entrance examination system also ignores higher vocational colleges in terms of policy orientation. Therefore, as a higher vocational college, in the training of talents, how to achieve a balance between " undergraduate compression " and " job skills " , not only emphasizes the improvement of students 'practical ability, but also pays attention to the cultivation of students' sustainable development ability It is the first question to explore the talent training model in higher vocational colleges.
(II) Training objectives for international economics and trade professionals
International economics and trade is a relatively popular major in recent years. At present, China has about 380 institutions of higher education (undergraduate) majoring in international trade, and about 490 institutions of higher vocational colleges specializing in international trade. There are about 510 specialized secondary vocational schools. The major of international economics and trade is a highly practical specialty. According to the survey of relevant employers, it is learned that the employers of international trade majors hope to recruit graduates with strong ability, quick start and high comprehensive quality. Therefore, professional positions should be used to locate talent training goals, highlight the cultivation of students 'comprehensive vocational skills, allow students to master the basic skills of international trade while at school, enhance hands-on ability, shorten the employment cycle, and take into account the students' subsequent career development path. Only in this way can students' advantages in employment competition be truly enhanced. The training objectives can be briefly summarized as: advanced application-oriented professionals who have sufficient basic knowledge, strong practical ability, and good comprehensive quality, and can directly engage in international business.
Second, grasping market demand is the direction of talent training
(I) Demand for International Trade Professionals
The enactment of the WTO's "New Foreign Trade Law" has promoted the rapid growth of China's international trade business. From the perspective of total trade volume, China has become the third largest trading country in the world in 2006. In addition, more and more multinational companies have chosen According to conservative estimates, in the next few years, China will need 1.5 to 2 million foreign trade talents. According to statistics from the College Employment Guidance Center of the Ministry of Education, China ’s annual economic graduates are about 130,000. Even if all engaged in foreign trade work, there is still a huge gap of more than 1 million talents. However, the reality of the market is that the dilemma of foreign trade companies in recruiting and graduates finding jobs, this fully shows that there are gaps and deviations in the ability, quality and needs of employers of graduates trained in higher education in China. “ 职业能力本位 ” 的指一导思想，提出以职业能力为核心，以职业活动为导向的教学改革思路。 Therefore, China has introduced the guiding ideology of " professional competence standard " , and put forward teaching reform ideas that take vocational competence as the core and professional activities as the guidance.
(B) analysis of positions (groups) in international economics and trade
As can be seen from Table 1, the job capacity and quality requirements of international trade jobs can be simply expressed as: basic knowledge of international trade, international trade documents and other practical skills, knowledge of international freight forwarding, customs inspection knowledge, and corresponding foreign languages. And computer operation ability + certain work experience ten degrees.
Third, teaching reform is a means of talent training
(1) Teaching module is the carrier
” 大纲本位 ” 的思想，建立起 ” 以职业分析为基础，以能力培养为中心 ” 的教学体系。 The teaching of international trade should get rid of the original " outline-based " thinking, and establish a teaching system that is " based on professional analysis and centered on ability development " . Taking into account the specific requirements of the position, the international trade ability can be divided into three modules: professional basic knowledge ability, foreign trade document ability, and comprehensive application ability.
(II) School-enterprise cooperation is the trend
The practice of vocational education at home and abroad has shown that school-enterprise cooperation is the best way and model for the training of skilled talents that reflect the characteristics of vocational education. Schools are the transporters of talents, and enterprises are the demanders of talents. Ensuring that the talents cultivated by the school is exactly what the enterprise needs. In school-enterprise cooperation, companies can participate in the formulation of school teaching plans, the preparation of teaching materials (especially practical training materials), serve as professors of experiments and some practical courses, provide internship opportunities, etc .: The school can also guide the production practices of enterprises , Select outstanding graduates to work in enterprises.
(3) Facing dual certificates is the key
Due to the wide scope of the implementation of the qualification certificate system in finance and economics majors, and the corresponding vocational standards corresponding to finance and economics majors, the vocational qualifications standards are integrated into the professional teaching plan of colleges and universities. ” 双证课程 ” ，即将职业资格证书的获取与学校的日常教学、考核结合起来，使学生在不延长学制的情况下，同时获得学历证书和职业资格证书。 The vocational qualification certificates related to international trade are mainly shown in Table 3. Each school can adopt a combination of compulsory courses and elective courses to implement a " dual certificate course " according to the actual situation, that is, to obtain the vocational qualification certificate and the daily life of the school. The combination of teaching and assessment enables students to obtain both academic credentials and vocational qualifications without extending their academic structure.
(4) Strengthening training is a breakthrough
The reform of the experimental training mode is not only the highlight of the talent training model, but also the breakthrough point, and it is even more difficult. Specifically, the practice teaching system for international economics and trade majors should be composed of classroom practice teaching, in-school simulation training and out-of-school training base internships, and the development of a variety of extra-curricular social practice activities.
1. Classroom practice teaching. Depending on the course, design scenarios, role-playing, group discussions, reading reports, and other forms can be combined with real case analysis to stimulate students 'enthusiasm for learning and improve students' practical skills.
2. School simulation training. ” 国际贸易模拟实习平台 “ 外贸单证制作平台 ” 、 ” 外贸模拟练习系统 ” 、 ' .进出口实务操作题库 ” 等仿真模拟实训，使学生熟悉国际贸易流程和一系列进出口单证的缮制和修改以及海关、银行、货运代理、船运公司、保险公司、商检部门等在国际贸易中所扮演的角色和职责，培养学生胜任国际商务各岗位的职业能力。 Relying on professional laboratories and teaching software, we have built simulation simulation training such as " international trade simulation practice platform ", " foreign trade document production platform " , " foreign trade simulation practice system " , and " . Import and export practice operation question bank " to familiarize students with international trade processes. And the production and modification of a series of import and export documents, as well as the roles and responsibilities of customs, banks, freight forwarders, shipping companies, insurance companies, and commodity inspection departments in international trade, to train students for careers in various positions in international business ability.
3. Extracurricular social practice activities. Extracurricular practical teaching aims to help students apply the theory learned in the classroom, school, and textbooks through certain practical activities, such as organizing English skills competitions, business negotiation competitions, and encouraging students to actively participate in social surveys and writing practice reports. The transformation of knowledge into comprehensive ability to meet the needs of society is a further improvement of the comprehensive quality of students and an effective way to help students identify their future career choices.
4. Off-campus internships. Combining graduation thesis and graduation internship, designating experienced internship instructors to follow the guidance, improve student internship quality and corporate satisfaction with the internship students, and promote employment through internships, increase the retention rate of internships, and thereby improve the overall status of the major Employment level.
(5) Enhancement of Teachers is Guarantee
In order to break the traditional theoretical indoctrination-based teaching method, we must first improve the professional quality of teachers. 双师 ” 素质师资队伍建设是构建高职高专外贸专业立体实践教学体系的基础，也是高职教育可持续发展的决定因素。 The construction of a " double teacher " quality teacher team is the basis for constructing a three-dimensional practical teaching system for foreign trade majors in higher vocational colleges and a determinant of the sustainable development of higher vocational education. ” 走出去 ” 和 ' .请进来 ” 相结合的方式，促进 ” 双师 ” 素质教师队伍的不断壮大。一方面，学校要求教师率先取得各种职业资格证书，并定期轮流选派教师到企业一线熟悉业务，把握最新的外经贸动态;另一方面，学校可聘请外贸公司业务骨干不定期到校，或参与授课或举办讲座或指导实验实训，用真实案例剖析外贸实务。 Schools should adopt a combination of “ going out ” and “ inviting to come in ” to promote the continuous growth of the “ double teacher ” quality teacher team. On the one hand, the school requires teachers to take the lead in obtaining various vocational qualification certificates and periodically select teachers to take turns to Enterprises are familiar with the business on the front line and grasp the latest foreign trade and economic developments. On the other hand, schools can hire the backbone of foreign trade companies to come to the school from time to time, or participate in lectures or hold lectures or guide experimental training, and analyze foreign trade practices with real cases.