This article points out the three outstanding issues of the current quality of employment exist: workers suffer from occupational diseases situation is grim, real wages of workers wages far lower than he should have, the lower social insurance rate of private enterprises, these have seriously infringed upon the legitimate rights and interests of workers, the author deal with the problems from the government, enterprises and individual workers the three angles depth analysis and made recommendations accordingly.
Reform and development of the overall situation of stable employment relations issues, the relationship between people's living standards, the relationship between the national long-term stability, not only a major economic issue, but also a major political issues, social issues. China's economic restructuring and industrial structure adjustment and industry structure constantly, all accompanied by a series of employment. Employment includes both quantity and quality, people pay more attention to the current number of jobs, ignoring the quality of employment issues. In fact, the quality of employment is more important for a country, it has become an important indicator to measure the quality of life of a country.
First, there is the quality of employment of the three outstanding issues
The health of workers is compromised, workers pay and reward proportionality, how the social security situation of workers is the main indicator of the quality of employment. At present, China occupational illness situation is grim, low wages, low social insurance of private enterprise is the quality of employment of the outstanding problems.
1. Our situation is grim occupational disease
At present the country has harmful toxic enterprises more than 16 million, subject to various occupational hazards of the population has more than two hundred million. The number exposed to occupational hazards in China, the number of new cases of occupational diseases, the cumulative number of cases and deaths leads the world in the number of cases, and now occupational disease cases is still on the rise; and the high incidence of occupational disease is difficult to cure. Since the vast majority of occupational diseases in young adults, directly affect the quality of the population and sustainable development of China's labor resources. In addition, with the gradual deepening of China's WTO accession process, as important occupational disease prevention and safety, environmental protection has become proviso trade in certain developed countries, economic boycotts and economic sanctions on developing countries in international trade, the development of national suffer the limitation of non-tariff barriers. If our emphasis on occupational disease prevention, health does not improve working conditions, exports will be restricted, thus weakening the ability to compete in the global market.
2. wages in the labor market is low
Over the years, China's national economy maintained a sustained, rapid growth, and high economic growth accompanied by low growth in worker wages, continued to increase the number of low-income, income distribution "pyramid" structure was further strengthened. Some coastal areas of China foreign workers wages have not in 20 years time changed much, despite nominal wage increased, but net of price growth index, but no increase in real wages drop. Take Shenzhen as an example. In 2005, the GDP increased by 15%. Among the new GDP composition in Shenzhen, corporate income accounted for about 50%, labor income accounted for about 30%, national income was about 15%, and corporate income was much higher than The income of laborers, therefore, there is a phenomenon of "increasing profits without increasing wages." The proportion of labor compensation in China's GDP has declined.
3. Low participation rate of employees in private enterprises
China's economy has developed rapidly in recent years, and a large number of large-scale and powerful private enterprises have emerged at the same time as economic development. Combining with Musgrave's theory of stages of economic development, it can be seen that private enterprises will play an increasingly important role in China's social and economic life. However, the low participation rate of private enterprises in social insurance is no longer a peculiar situation in one place, but a common problem existing throughout the country. The private enterprise participation rate in Tianjin is 10% and Changchun is 30%. Enterprises are unwilling to assume the obligation to pay social insurance premiums for their employees. Under such a severe employment situation, those who are flexible in employment are only required to have a job, and they dare not put forward more insurance requirements to enterprises.
Analysis of the causes of the three major employment quality problems in China
The reasons for the above-mentioned employment quality problems can be attributed to the lack of government responsibility, the irregular management of enterprises, and the weak self-protection awareness of workers.
1. Lack of government responsibility
(1) Lack of government responsibility. Government investment is insufficient, and disease prevention capacity lags behind economic development. The government has not mandated the establishment of a stable wage growth mechanism, but has provided that local governments have the right to set local minimum wages based on local actual conditions, but lack supervision and review of this system. The prevention and control professional team is scattered, and the prevention and control are weak. The government's basic management is weak, and the social insurance information of private enterprises cannot be grasped in a timely manner, which directly affects the insurance participation and payment of private enterprises. The legal system is not sound. The Interim Regulations on the Collection and Payment of Social Insurance Fees have no mandatory requirements for non-public economies.
(2) Offside of government responsibility. The government unilaterally pursues economic interests and abuses regulatory power. Due to the influence of the concept of performance, some local leaders are pursuing economic development one-sidedly, and they are aware of the dangers of occupational diseases and the hidden dangers in the work process. .
2. Irregular corporate management
(1) The management of labor employment is not standardized, and the rights and interests of employees cannot be guaranteed. Employers do not sign labor contracts with employees, do not establish employee health files, and do not participate in work-related injury social insurance problems. Some employees have not established their legal rights and interests. When employees ’rights and interests are damaged, there is no clear labor relationship. Private enterprises evade insurance responsibilities and obligations that should be borne by them.
(2) The limitations of private enterprises themselves. Employers seeking to maximize profits are reluctant to increase costs for employees' insurance, and regard the due obligation of insuring employees as a burden. Although China's law has clearly stipulated that the responsible body and the bearer of the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases are in the employer. However, many employers have not fulfilled their responsibilities and obligations for the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases.
3. Poor workers' awareness of self-protection
(1) Workers' awareness of protecting their rights is weak. Poor quality leads to a lack of understanding of some relevant laws and regulations, the truth about occupational disease hazards in the workplace, and little knowledge of workers who know how to protect themselves. What harm does health cause.
(2) The employment structure of private enterprises is complex, the team is unstable, and the number of people eligible for insurance is small. On the one hand, most individual and private enterprises have small funds, small scales, and poor production and operation conditions. In addition, affected by the market, the demand for labor is also very unstable. these people were in agricultural production seasonal effects, migrant workers during the off-season, when the busy home farm, who did most of who gave money, the Senate does not matter insured.