[Keywords] Papers on Sociology, Sociology, Introduction to Sociology, Urban Sociology
[Abstract] Building a harmonious socialist society is a strategic goal put forward by the 16th National Congress of the Party and the 4th Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee. In the current economic and social development, there are many disharmonies between humans and nature, people and people, and people and society. The disharmony of urban and rural development is an important aspect, and its concentrated performance is a serious problem of migrant workers. The existence of the problem of migrant workers restricts the construction of a harmonious socialist society. This article first analyzes the problem of migrant workers in building a harmonious socialist society. Based on this, this article proposes countermeasures to solve the problem of migrant workers from the perspective of building a harmonious society.
The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China regards "more harmonious society" as one of the goals for building a well-off society in an all-round way. When discussing the issue of strengthening the party's governing ability, the Fourth Plenum of the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposed "building a harmonious socialist society" In the middle of the month, the Central Committee held a special seminar on "Promoting the Ability to Build a Socialist Harmonious Society" by leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels. General Secretary Hu Jintao made an important speech. At this point, building a harmonious socialist society has become the starting point and end point for the party and government to formulate policies, and it has also become a major topic of discussion in the philosophical, economic, and political circles, especially the sociological circle.
As we all know, China is an authentic agricultural and peasant power. The basic status of agriculture, the backwardness of rural development, and the fact that peasants account for the majority of our nationals all highlight the importance of the "three rural" issues. At present, many inharmonious phenomena in Chinese society are entangled with the thorny "three rural issues." Migrant workers are a special social group formed in the process of China's industrialization, urbanization, and modernization, and they are "Chinese characteristics" in the process of world industrialization and modernization. Migrant workers are an overwhelming group of Chinese farmers who have impacted the previous planning system in the process of the transition from the traditional agricultural society to the industrialized society. Lu Xueyi, a farmer expert at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that the nature of the migrant worker problem is The above is the peasant problem. Researching and solving the problem of peasant workers is a breakthrough to solve the "three rural" problem. Studying and thinking about all major social issues in China, including social harmony, must be based on this basic national situation. Promoting China's current modernization cause, if the problem of migrant workers is not handled properly, it will lead to social disharmony.
The problem of migrant workers restricts the realization of a harmonious society
The construction of a "socialist harmonious society" proposed by the Fourth Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee of the Party should be a society full of creative vitality, a society in which the interests of all parties are effectively coordinated, a society in which the social management system is continuously innovated and sound, and it is stable. An orderly society. To build such a harmonious society, it is necessary to rely on people at all levels in the society to "do their utmost" in building socialism with Chinese characteristics, and then achieve people's "all in place" to share the material and spiritual results of the development of a harmonious society. It also clarified the main content of building a harmonious socialist society. The harmonious socialist society we want to build should be a society with democracy and the rule of law, fairness and justice, good faith and love, full of vitality, stability and order, and harmony between man and nature. In the category of a harmonious socialist society, an important content is fairness and justice. A harmonious socialist society is a society with fairness and justice as its core values.
At present, a prominent manifestation of the disharmony in our economy and society is the problem of migrant workers. Therefore, to build a harmonious socialist society, the key issue that must be resolved quickly is the problem of migrant workers. It can be said that the problem of migrant workers restricts the realization of a harmonious society. Analysis of the current situation of migrant workers and its restrictive factors for the construction of a harmonious society:
First of all, for equal pay for different work, the labor employment rights of migrant workers are not protected. Migrant workers who go to cities to work as migrant workers cannot enter because of the lack of a city hukou. In fact, the work that migrant workers now do is usually dirty, tired and poor physical work that people in the city are not willing to do: long working hours, high labor intensity, harsh working environment, and threatened life safety and physical health. Even if they can get the same employment opportunities as the urban population, they are inferior to the urban hukou workers. The “three equal pay for the same work”, “different pay for the same work at the same time” and “simultaneous different rights” The same phenomenon as "three differences" is serious. Not only do migrant workers have no minimum wage, they also have low wages. This has not changed since the 1980s. Moreover, due to the unorganized atomic status of migrant workers entering the city, many of their legitimate rights and interests have been deprived. For example, multi-employee units recruit migrant workers from here but do not sign contracts with them, resulting in many migrant workers finding nothing after labor. Some business owners sign contracts with migrant workers, but there are many invalid clauses and overlord clauses in the labor contracts they sign. Some business owners even force migrant workers to sign life and death exemption clauses. What is particularly serious now is that the wages of migrant workers are in arrears.
Second, the right to education of migrant children. The wages and various rights of migrant workers living in cities cannot be guaranteed. This phenomenon even affects their children. There are many difficulties for children of migrant workers to attend school in cities. Due to the differences between the urban and rural areas of the compulsory education system, in most cities, children of migrant workers have to pay a lot of borrowing fees compared to urban children. Many schools do not accept children of migrant workers. Due to such a reality, there are now simple schools run by migrant workers themselves, which is also a way of education that most migrant workers choose for their children. Although this kind of school is very popular, because it is not recognized and accepted by the formal system, it survives and develops in an illegal state, and it is easy to be cleaned up, rectified, and banned. As a result, a large number of children of migrant workers cannot receive normal education like urban children, and normal socialization is disrupted and destroyed. In other words, migrant workers' lives are now clearly below the social average, and their children are deprived of normal education opportunities. This will obviously affect their future development. Originally, education was an investment in education for the entire country, but migrant workers as citizens of the country were unable to enjoy legitimate rights and interests. This is obviously an unfair treatment for them.
Again, the issue of social security. As a Chinese citizen, urban residents can enjoy the minimum living security when they have a difficult life, have medical insurance when they are sick, buy housing with housing insurance, provident fund, and have old-age insurance with social insurance. However, affected by the dual urban-rural system and the urban-rural dual national policy, Chinese farmers who are also Chinese citizens have not been included in the unified social security system. For migrant workers who work in cities, they live in the same city as urban residents, but because they do not have urban hukou, they have not been included in the unified social security system, and they have been left behind in the safety net of society. outer. In this way, both Chinese citizens and migrant workers are unable to enjoy housing, medical, and pension insurance because they do not have formal employee and urban resident status. And the overall wage level of migrant workers is relatively low, which makes most migrant workers living in very poor conditions. Once they encounter any natural disaster, they often have no choice.