Abstract: The article analyzes the main problems of current project quality management, and proposes countermeasures for quality management of water conservancy and hydropower projects to ensure the quality of project construction and improve the overall construction management level.
Keywords: water conservancy and hydropower engineering; quality control; measures
The quality control of water conservancy and hydropower projects is an eternal theme of project construction management and a problem for many construction managers. In fact, as long as the quality management institution is improved, the system is improved, the quality control outline is established, the boundaries of responsibility are clearly defined, the supervision is fully authorized, the supervision assessment is strengthened, the side stations are in place, the random sampling inspection is strengthened, the closure is strictly dealt with, and the water conservancy and hydropower projects are well established. Quality control is not difficult. In the process of large-scale water conservancy and hydropower construction, how to take effective measures to resolve contradictions and problems in quality management is a topic we face and often think about.
I. Main problems in current project quality management
A) Unclear quality management goals are mainly due to insufficient attention to strategy. Although most projects have put forward slogans such as "quality projects", "first-class projects", and "excellent projects", the concepts of these goal slogans are ambiguous at a certain level. And, to a certain extent, there is a tendency of "heavy speed" and "light weight", so it is difficult to fully and accurately grasp the quality requirements of the project to ensure the quality of the construction project.
Second, the construction management relationship is not smooth. On the one hand, in the dynamic quality management of large-scale water conservancy and hydropower construction, the personnel team and working energy are limited, and it is difficult to ensure the depth and timeliness of supervision and inspection; on the other hand, the construction unit and design, Construction, supervision units, and quality supervision departments are sometimes affiliated with the same locality or department, which easily leads to local and industry protection and is not conducive to the quality management work in place.
3. The construction procedures are not strictly implemented. Most of the water conservancy and hydropower projects are public welfare projects. There is no direct return on economic benefits. The investment form is mainly state investment. Some localities and construction units often focus their efforts on securing national investment. The preliminary work is not sufficient. After obtaining construction funds, they do not follow the capital construction procedures, start construction in a hurry, or even go through project approval procedures, so that they cannot be accepted after completion. It is impossible to evaluate the overall project quality. At the same time, some of the project legal persons do not have the substantive conditions, responsibilities, rights, and benefits are separated, and it is difficult to assume due responsibilities.
(4) The construction process is not tightly controlled. First, there is insufficient fine management. The construction process has a rough work style, lacks intensive cultivation, and has many quality defects. The second is the lack of implementation of measures. Although work instructions and construction measures have been formulated, they have not been strictly implemented and implemented. Third, the basic management is weak, and the quality records are poor in timeliness, accuracy, completeness, and closure; the data for collating, analyzing, summarizing, and improving the results of production tests are incomplete.
V) The quality of the personnel team is low In recent years, the water conservancy and hydropower industry has strengthened personnel training and team building. The construction, supervision, quality supervision and other teams and institutions have been greatly strengthened, but the quality management staff is still weak and professional. Difficult to meet engineering requirements. A small number of on-site quality control personnel have a weak sense of responsibility and do not operate in accordance with the construction regulations and relevant supervision regulations; the quality of the workers is not high, and there is a phenomenon of cutting corners and cutting materials.
6) Lack of enforcement of disciplines The lack of local supporting funds for a water conservancy and hydropower construction project has not been resolved at the policy level, which has led to the phenomenon of "how much money do many things"; water conservancy and hydropower construction, supervision and other related qualifications The review and approval work is also relatively slow. Some hydropower construction and supervision enterprises and their personnel who have the corresponding conditions are unable to participate in market competition, and monitor various types of unlicensed or leapfrogged engineering construction, attachment, subcontracting, and illegal subcontracting. The investigation and punishment were not timely and effective, which restricted the improvement of the quality of water conservancy and hydropower projects and the in-depth development of quality management work.
Measures to improve the quality management of water conservancy and hydropower projects
1) Improve awareness of quality concept Water conservancy and hydropower projects have a large investment, long construction period, and extensive coverage. Project quality is a major social issue that directly affects the safety of people's lives and property. It is also the basis for the survival and development of water conservancy and hydropower projects. Related to the design, construction, owner's effectiveness and image. The construction process of water conservancy and hydropower projects is the process of achieving quality. Quality management is "not the best, only better". Therefore, the concept of "mass quality" should be established, that is, engineering quality includes both internal quality (emphasizing "internal reality") and external quality (emphasizing "outside light"); both the physical quality of the project and the formation of the entity Quality of work. At the same time, extensively carry out "quality education", improve the quality awareness of all employees, and make each post truly realize that "quality is the eternal theme of construction engineering 99, 116 quality is the lifeline of the enterprise", "quality today is the market tomorrow" The company's good quality reputation and reasonable quality cost depend on the high-quality work of each post, so that employees can clarify the characteristics and scope of post quality work, so that employees have the spirit of solidarity and cooperation, maintain the quality reputation of the enterprise, and through constant education and training, Make the employees of the company reach a consensus on the quality of construction and excellence.
2) To improve the quality management system, we must do a good job of quality management and control. The management system is the foundation. With the system, there are procedures, management measures and content, as well as management departments and management responsible persons.
The first is to improve the quality management organization. First of all, the owner unit shall set up a management and management department responsible for the quality of the project and a specific department for the management of the quality of the project, giving them the power and responsibility to manage the quality of the project and handle quality accidents. The supervision unit shall set up a full-time deputy director of quality and a quality and technology assurance department to determine the corresponding duties and requirements, respectively. The construction unit from the team to the construction team to the project department must form a "three inspections" organization, agree on their respective responsibilities, and form a quality assurance system for the construction unit. The three parties work together, restricting and supervising each other.
The second is to improve the quality management system. First of all, it is necessary to formulate quality management methods, and generally agree on the responsibilities, authorities and obligations of the parties involved in quality management and control. Secondly, it is necessary to formulate detailed rules for the implementation of project quality management, make provisions on rewards and penalties for the construction unit's construction process, procedures, links, as well as details of sampling inspection results, appearance quality, etc., ensure project quality through reward and punishment incentives, and create good construction quality management Atmosphere. At the same time, it is also necessary to formulate design assessment management measures, supervision and assessment measures or detailed rules, acceptance management measures, and standards for production and assessment, and after a unit project is completed, timely assessment and rectification are made to indicate the direction for the subsequent unit project quality improvement.
The third is to have a quality control outline for each construction stage. That is to grasp the quality control points at the corresponding stage, formulate the key points and key points of quality control at each stage of the project construction, and clarify the focus and direction of project quality management.
3. Strict quality control process Strict quality control process is to strictly control before, during and after the event. Focus on quality from the first process, so that quality does not leave the future, and engineering does not leave regrets.
First, it is necessary to refine the pre-control to ensure early warning and preventive preparations. Including the establishment of an early warning system, and the establishment of corresponding construction guidelines for key complex parts and key processes in combination with engineering characteristics; strict control and inspection of construction raw materials, and layer-by-layer sampling inspections from procurement, purchase, storage, etc., and strict control; "Card system", combined with their respective professional characteristics and actual conditions, compiled the main process requirements and related solutions to ensure that the site construction staff have one card to improve the operator's ability to find and solve problems; held technical conferences. Provide technical information to the operators before the project starts.
The second is to strengthen the control in the matter, so as to regulate and rectify deviations, and responsibilities are in place. Including the strict implementation of the "three inspections" system, that is, the construction team technicians conduct "preliminary inspection", the professional construction team quality inspectors are responsible for "re-inspection", the quality office full-time quality inspection engineer is responsible for "final inspection", and submits the quality inspection to the supervision engineer Records; implement the "seamless transfer" system, adhere to the process transfer card and node process countersignature to ensure that the construction process does not leave quality problems when asked to transfer; implement the "model unit" engineering system, and drive other employees and other parts through the "typical approach" The improvement and improvement of the implementation of the system; the implementation of a system for monitoring the quality of inspectors in key processes, and a system of rewards and punishments for the construction process.
The third is to attach importance to post-event control, so that supervision and inspection can be implemented. Including strict implementation of the inspection system, timely inspection and treatment of quality problems that have been found or suspected, and reduce the difficulty of post-processing; adhere to the analysis system, hold regular monthly quality meetings, analyze problems during construction, propose preventive measures or rectification within a time limit, and Subsequent construction shall be supervised for inspection and implementation; adhere to the assessment system, implement the quality "quarterly assessment, annual evaluation", link construction quality with economic benefits, and implement special quality awards for key quality projects to ensure high quality construction quality management.
4. Strengthening law enforcement supervision Practice has proved that it is often not enough to rely on the self-discipline and consciousness of employees and related units for project quality management. Special governance and law enforcement supervision are effective supplementary means to improve and ensure project quality. First, it is necessary to further improve the relevant policies and regulations system, to supplement, modify and improve the water conservancy and hydropower industry regulations and construction management regulations formulated over the years, strengthen the compilation and codification of policies and regulations, and formulate corresponding model texts. The second is to strengthen the promotion and popularization of policies and regulations, and widely publicize and implement laws and regulations such as the "People's Republic of China Tendering and Bidding Law" and "Regulations on the Quality Management of Construction Projects", and make full use of mass academic organizations such as associations, societies, and research associations. Carry out special research and academic discussions. Third, according to the law, the project quality and quality management responsibilities are fulfilled. Where national laws, regulations, rules, and systems are clear, all units and personnel should be held accountable according to law and discipline. In terms of administrative punishment, economic punishment must be increased. The use of economic leverage to deal with the quality of the project caused by the interests of the responsible subject. The fourth is to improve the reporting system, fully mobilize the power of discipline inspection and supervision agencies and the news media, the people and all sectors of society, use information network technology and means to establish a rapid response law enforcement supervision team, and carry out related issues and accidents involving engineering quality. Public exposure and direct investigations will be launched quickly to advance the legalization process of quality management.
5) Improving the overall quality of the team In order to adapt to the current construction characteristics and the requirements of new technologies and processes, the construction process should be guided by a common value orientation, full-training as the goal, and backbone training as the focus to further improve the thinking of the workforce. Quality and business technology quality. The first is to compile a quality manual, make it a manual, and conduct on-site training for all employees who enter the project site, so that they understand the overall project profile and overall quality requirements, the project's quality objectives, quality system and quality system, and comprehensive Strengthen the quality awareness of operators. Second, before the start of the new project, a comprehensive technical explanation of the newly started project is made to familiarize the operators with the operation content and quality requirements. Third, special operators should be trained at the scene before taking up their posts, and they can only take up their posts after passing the assessment. The fourth is to irregularly organize front-line construction personnel to conduct professional technical training in construction technology, and organize mutual observation, learning and communication, and strive to improve employee service skills through "inviting in" and "sending out" training methods. In addition, policy and regulations, training in quality management knowledge, skills, and methods will be provided to staff engaged in engineering quality management and staff of quality supervision agencies to cultivate and create a professional quality management team and promote construction quality management. To improve the overall construction level of the project.