The quality of scientific and technological paper writing not only indicates the academic level and expression ability of the author, but also directly affects the level of the journal in which the article is published.
Several common questions in the first part of writing a dissertation
1. What kind of articles make editors headache
• Article writing is hierarchical and looks confusing;
• Article writing is not smooth and reads bluntly;
• Sentence errors, improper words, misuse of punctuation;
• Too long, too much of a minor matter, and too much preface;
• Sentences and misunderstandings are confusing;
2. What kind of articles are easily shot by editors
• lack of innovation, repeating others' work;
• Content is too stale and repeats common sense content;
• The research content is not significant or too narrow;
• The content is obviously wrong, and it is comprehensive.
• Divorce from reality, from simulation to virtual;
• Unconvincing and unconvincing.
3. Five Elements of Excellent Papers
Innovativeness refers to the latest research results that are creative, high-level and significant in basic research or applied research.
The scale of a paper or a research course is not necessarily large, but the research must be in-depth and the results must be profound. It must reflect the unique insights of the researcher. Such a paper is a high-level paper.
The readability of a scientific paper is crucial and should be taken seriously by the author.
Requires rigorous conclusions, rich content, complete discussion, and strong logic; the explanation is simple, clear and concise; the technical terms are accurate, consistent, and the language must be standardized and vivid.
The more new knowledge you get after reading an article, the more informative it is. For example, the "multi-point measurement" has much less information than the "6-point measurement". The former gives vague and inaccurate information, while the latter gives clear and exact information.
Although the space is small, the amount of information may not be small, as long as the content is sufficient, it is a good article. The dissertation does not talk about heroes in length!
Examples of essays: Watson and Crick's dissertation on the double helix structure of DNA, only about 500 words and a double helix diagram of DNA; American scientists Penzias and Wilson found 3K of the Big Bang The paper on technical observation of background radiation is only one page long, and these two papers have won the Nobel Prize in Biomedicine and Physics in the author.
5) Attribution and thanks
4. A few questions you should think about before writing
1.Why write this thesis?
2. What are the points and arguments to be stated?
3. In what way?
4. Who are the interested readers?
5. Which journal are you going to invest in?
The content should be consistent with the positioning of the journal, and the coverage of the journal should be paid attention before submission. That is, the manuscript must be consistent with the professional scope of the journal. Manuscripts that are irrelevant or far apart are difficult to accept.
6.What are the specific requirements for sci-tech periodicals in terms of style?
5.Why a scientific paper
1. Announce innovation results and obtain intellectual property rights;
2. Reflect academic level and build influence (reputation);
3. Promote scientific and technological progress and industry progress;
4. Promotion title, graduation thesis .
Thesis is a necessary professional skill for scientific and technological personnel; it is an important sign to evaluate the academic level, research and development ability, and innovation ability of a unit or a scientific and technological personnel.
How to choose a topic
1. First of all, according to the work you are engaged in, choose topics that have scientific value, innovation and practical significance;
2. Secondly, be good at choosing topics from the edges of disciplines or the intersections and junctions of multidisciplines;
3. Read more industry journals, listen to academic reports, discuss with peers, find out the status of research and problems to be solved, etc
4. Discover interesting topics that have not been explored in your area of interest;
5. Summarize highly controversial issues, repeatedly compare research methods and conclusions, and find entry points from them;
6. Good at grasping the problems encountered in the process of scientific research and production, and discover the flashing points of thinking;
7. What others haven't written, maybe not because others didn't think of it, but because it is meaningless or impossible.
7.Structure of scientific papers
2) clarify research methods
3) get the research results
4) Give a clear conclusion
8. Core journal issues
Nationally recognized official journal identification:
International Standard Number: ISSN ××××-××××
Chinese Standard Number: CN ××-×××× / YY
For example: ISSN 1001-1366 CN11-1919 / TU
The core journal system is an important part of China's academic evaluation system. It is mainly reflected in the confirmation of academic level. In some regions and units, apply for senior titles, obtain qualifications for postgraduate thesis defense , apply for scientific research projects, evaluate the academic level of scientific research institutions or colleges, and complete the workload of teachers and researchers. One of the prerequisites is to publish several papers in core journals within a certain period of time.
Core journals are the result of a large number of high-quality scientific articles and magazine editors.
There are currently two authoritative versions of core journals in China. The first is the "Chinese Journal of Scientific and Technical Paper Statistics" (also known as the "Chinese Core Journal of Science and Technology") assessed by the China Institute of Science and Technology Information (on behalf of the Ministry of Science and Technology); the other is the "Chinese Core Journal" published by the Peking University Library.
The second part of the writing of high-level scientific and technological papers
After determining the topic of the article (what story to say), start to prepare the choices of content. You can first list the outline, including the title of each part, necessary charts and data, and so on. The length is generally controlled between 3000 and 5000 words.
1. Arguing to be "new"
Innovativeness or originality is the primary characteristic of scientific papers. This is because the main research results reported in scientific and technological papers should not be available to predecessors (or others). Without new opinions, insights, results, and conclusions, it is not a scientific paper.
Do not repeat the content of articles that have been published by others, and avoid re-description and demonstration of existing knowledge, unless the author has another new idea, so you should always pay attention to reading and browsing related magazines.
Of course, the innovativeness of scientific papers is relatively speaking, but there should always be something unique, such as solving a problem that previous people failed to solve, the invention of a certain technology, the discovery of a new method, new material, The design and application of a new process, supplements, confirms or rejects unrecognized hypotheses, etc., discusses some important theoretical, experimental or observational new knowledge, or some known principles in practical applications The progress. Even if only some work has been done in the areas of correction, improvement, deepening and accuracy, it is also desirable and should fall within the scope of innovation.
In actual research or work, after all, the research results that have great value are few. Most of the topics are the introduction, digestion, transplantation of existing advanced science and technology at home and abroad, and the application of existing theories to solve practical problems in the region, industry, and system. If technological progress is effective, it should be regarded as a certain degree of innovation. Those who have made great efforts are indeed the author's "research results", but basically they repeat the work of others. If others have already done it, they are not innovative. Therefore, we need to read relevant scientific journals frequently to understand the relevant developments.
2. Be precise
The title is the general title of the paper, also known as the title or title, is the general outline of the paper, and is the logical combination of the most appropriate and concise words reflecting the most important content of the paper. The title is the crystallization, sublimation, and high-level summarization of the information and content of the dissertation. It is also "half the success of the dissertation." Therefore, a good title can not only arouse readers' strong interest, closely and accurately express the content of the paper, but also reflect the scope, direction, and depth of the author's research, while also providing the article with important information such as indexes and keywords. The organic combination of the texts can often play a role of mutual coupling and complement each other.
Therefore, the title should "represent the content of the paper accurately with a minimum number of words." Appropriate but not too bland, contagious without exaggerating.
Basic requirements for title writing-ABC:
Proposition example: If the thesis introduces a previously existing method, and you use a brand new method, the title can be "... new method"; if you have made some improvements on the basis of the predecessors, it is "... improvement Method "; if the effect is similar to the previous method, but the method is different, it is" ... another method ".
Example: "Analysis and Control Measures for Surface Subsidence Factors of Shallow Buried and Undercut Tunnels in a Section of Shenzhen Metro Line 5 Project", 31 words
—— "Surface Subsidence Control of Shallow Buried and Undercut Tunnel of Line 5 of Shenzhen Metro", reduced to 19 words
"Thinking about the issues related to the development and improvement of the construction machinery rental market", 21 words
—— "Thinking about the Development of Construction Machinery Leasing Market", reduced to 14 words
Use the most concise and appropriate phrases to reflect the specific content of the article, with a word count of less than 20 words.
•-The topic is too big
Example: "Application Research of Construction Machinery"
Application of Laser Technology
"Problems Existing in the Safety of Construction Hoisting Machinery"
•-Use the word "research" indiscriminately
•-use abbreviations, abbreviations, etc.
3. Levels need to be clear
The general requirements of scientific and technological papers are: clear levels, the arrangement of sections and paragraphs conforms to the logical order, and conforms to the reader's understanding and thinking rules. Regardless of the type of technical issue involved in a sci-tech paper, and no matter how many topics are involved, the method of clarification and argumentation should be centered on the central topic, be handled flexibly according to the specific situation, and adopt the appropriate structural order and level. , Organize the paragraphs, arrange the materials, and can't think of where to write where.
A dissertation, from the perspective of the development of ideas, should be explained layer by layer, through one layer, and then another layer of meaning. The questions asked at the beginning should be analyzed, and the answers should be answered at the end, so as to respond before and after. Otherwise, it will easily lead to unclear levels, chaotic structures, and ambiguous themes.
The structure of sci-tech papers can generally be summarized as: 1) propositions are proposed; 2) research methods are clarified; 3) research results are obtained; 4) clear conclusions are given.
Example: The paper "Some Thoughts on the Development of the Construction Machinery Leasing Market" focuses on the central argument of developing and improving the construction machinery leasing market:
1) Discuss the status and role of developing and improving the construction machinery rental market from a theoretical and practical perspective;
2) Exploring the conditions and basis for developing and improving the construction machinery rental market from the analysis of economic development and the combined effects of many factors;
3) Starting from the gap between conditions and foundations, we explored the direction and process of developing and improving the construction machinery rental market, and put forward the long-term development direction and development process of the construction machinery rental market;
4) Finally, put forward highly operational measures and countermeasures for the development of construction machinery rental market.
After layers of analysis, it echoed back and forth and became an excellent thesis.
The structure of the thesis should be clear and logical.
The structure is reasonable from three aspects:
First, see if the levels are clear and clear, if there are any repetitions or contradictions, if there is any lack or superfluity, whether the meaning is continuous and whether it meets the proof requirements of each point;
Second, look at whether the transitions between the various levels are consistent with the care, whether the inheritance is natural and appropriate, and whether the links between the paragraphs are tight;
Third, look at whether the preface, the thesis, and the conclusions are consistent, and whether there are situations that have been called before and should not be followed. Questions were raised before and no answers were given later.
In short, a good article structure is to clearly divide the chaotic levels, arrange the unreasonable paragraphs, change the coherent and inconsistent, cope with the inconsistent changes, and change the details that are not appropriate. . Try to be seamless and leave no traces.
4, expression should be standardized
Whether or not the expression of the thesis directly affects the processing and dissemination of information. Only by realizing the standardization of the writing format and the standardization of the processing of various details, can scientific papers truly reflect the connotation of science and accurately express the content of science.
Requirement: The theme is prominent, the level is clear, the paragraph is clear; the language is concise and solid; the punctuation is correct; the chart is standardized; the dimension (unit) meets the standard; the reference elements are complete, clear and appropriate.
The standardized expression of scientific and technological papers mainly involves the following aspects:
1) Standardization of writing format. According to the requirements of GB7713-87, scientific and technical papers must have a unified format, that is, the components and order of scientific and technical papers are: title, author signature, abstract, keywords, middle figure classification number, introduction, text, conclusion (and recommendations) Acknowledgements, references, and appendixes; chapters and numbers in the hierarchical arrangement are uniformly represented by Arabic numerals, and the text under the title usually starts on a separate line.
2) Standardization or standardization of expressions of textual details and technical details. It mainly includes standardized expressions of terminology, numbers, quantities and units, mathematical formulas, chemical formulas, etc., as well as the rational design of illustrations and tables.
3) Standardize the use of scientific language and punctuation. Requirements: Accurate, concise, and vivid; do not use idioms and dialects casually, let alone create your own words and words, which can make people wonder or misunderstand.
5. Be fully prepared
1) Literature research. Make full use of sci-tech periodicals and Internet search, and follow the steps to start with one or two recent or representative works, and gradually expand the "warfare". Use the review to understand the field and find related literature.
2) Read the literature. After extensive reading, find the intensive reading of some of the documents that are most relevant to the current topic.
3) Topic selection and innovation. The topic selection is the key to scientific research. The topic selection is to decide what and how to write the thesis. The importance of a job is often identified when the topic is selected.
Do not write the thesis into an instruction manual, design calculation book, nor a maintenance instruction, construction process plan, at least not allow conventional design calculations to occupy too much space. We must be good at summarizing the general problems or key problems in scientific research design, production, use or construction, and focus on introducing methods and ideas. Don't stuff too much detail or unnecessary content.
Work summary or experiment summary is different from scientific paper. The summary may be more detailed in content, but not necessarily creative or published, and the format is not very strict and uniform. The thesis emphasizes scientific, creative, logical and effective.
6, patiently modify
After the first draft of the paper is written, it must be patiently revised five times. The author must first check his own article.
Re-examine the argument, whether it is stated correctly and clearly. See how the arguments in the article are expressed, and whether they are written the same as what is envisaged. After reading, are the readers consistent with their ideas? Does each sub-argument in the article demonstrate the central argument from a different perspective?