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Guide to Writing Natural Science Papers

编辑: 毕业论文 Release time: 2016-10-12Editor : Graduation Thesis

The thesis is not only a data storage of research results, but also an effective framework for further research.

1.What is an academic paper?

A dissertation is a systematic exposition of hypotheses, data and conclusions, and guides the reader accordingly. The thesis is the core part of the research. If one of your studies has not produced any papers, it is tantamount to not doing the same. "Meaning but unpublished" is like "never existed."

The purpose of the research is to accurately formulate and verify hypotheses, draw conclusions from constant argumentation, and present the conclusions to readers. Remember, your research purpose is not simply "gathering data."

If you are clear about the purpose and form of your dissertation, it will be of great help to organize and conduct further research. A good thesis outline is a good planning guide for research projects. Throughout the research, you need to write down the outline and adapt it. At the beginning of the study, there should be a main plan; at the end of the work, there should be a full summary. Rather than simply collecting data and organizing and writing it after completion, it is more efficient to understand, analyze, summarize and correct in the process.

2. Outline of the thesis

2.1 Why write an outline?

It is necessary to recognize the central position of the outline in thesis writing , academic seminars and research planning. Writing the thesis based on an outline is the most effective method. An outline is a written text plan that includes the data on which the thesis is based. In fact, the outline is not just to list the text of each paragraph, but to carefully organize and present the data according to the purpose, hypotheses, and conclusions.

The outline should be concise. If we agree on the details of the data and structure in the outline, the text is easy to organize. When the outline details have not been finalized, it is meaningless to write the text. When writing a thesis , most of the time is spent writing the text; most of the thinking is used to organize and analyze the data. It is naturally more efficient to repeatedly scrutinize and revise the outline before writing, and then to revise it all over again after writing the complete text.

2.2 How to write an outline?

The most classic method is to take out the paper, write down any ideas related to the dissertation that came out of my mind at the time, and think carefully: "Why did I do this work?" "What's the point of it?" "I want Which hypotheses have been tested? "" What hypotheses have I actually tested? "" What are the results and have new methods been generated? "" What tests have I performed? "" What are the indicators? How are they characterized? "And outline the possible Icon. It's important to capture these main ideas. If your research was originally designed to confirm one hypothesis, but when you take a closer look at the information at hand, you find that the data seems to better confirm another hypothesis, don't worry. Write these down and choose the best combination of hypotheses, goals, and data. Often, when the dissertation is completed, its purpose is different from the original purpose.

After you write all this on paper, take out another piece of paper and organize these thoughts into the following three areas:

1 Introduction

Why should I do this work? What is the main purpose and hypothesis?

2 Results and discussion

What indicators have been tested? What are the results of the data obtained? Why are there such results?

3 conclusions

What does all this mean? What hypotheses have been confirmed or rejected? What have I learned? What is the significance?

Next, organize the above sections better. Particular emphasis is placed on organizing the data and presenting the data as clearly and concisely as possible. This process may be slow, because it may take 5 or 10 attempts to draw a picture in different ways to achieve the clearest and most beautiful level.

Finally, put it all: content outlines, tables, sketches, equations, and order.

When you have all the data you need, or know exactly what additional data you want to collect, and have a reasonable structure, briefly mark where the data is still missing, what do you think (or assume) that the data is about. How to explain if the assumptions are correct. Then, determine the final form of all data (tables, charts, etc. in the outline will eventually become tables, charts, etc. in the dissertation).

Then, you can start writing, at which point you use most of the data that you have collated.

The key to efficient use of time is to think about the outline and comments as early as possible at the beginning of the project, and don't wait until the data collection is "completed" before you start writing the outline. Research will never be “completed”. When research projects begin to take shape, you should immediately start preparing your thesis and outline, which will save a lot of energy and time. Even before the formal organization of the document, it was suddenly decided to supplement important other experiments, and the writing of the outline was still instructive for research.

2.3 Content of the outline

The outline should include the following sections:

1 Title 2 Author 3 Abstract

Leave this section blank and wait until the dissertation is completed before writing.

4 Introduction

The first or first two paragraphs should be written in detail. In the beginning, it is important to note that the ideal state is to be able to state the purpose and significance of the research work concisely and concisely.

In general, the introduction is composed of the following aspects:

Research purpose: Why research?

Research significance: Why is it important?

Research background: Has anyone done the same research? In what way? What research have we done before?

Guiding readers: What can readers get from them? What ideas are unique and meaningful? What strategies have been adopted?

Summary: What conclusions should readers expect? A comprehensive outline version should include all links in the experimental part (specific to the paragraph headings).

5 results and discussion

Results and discussion are closely linked. This section should be organized by subject. Different chapters should be set with bold subheadings to make the structure clear, and at the same time, it is convenient for readers to quickly browse the full text and find the part they are interested in. Try to make chapter headlines specific and informative.

In the outline, do not write a lot of text, but arrange the data in the appropriate place: the text is only a brief reminder of the main content of each chapter.

Remember, the paper is an integration of experimental results, presented clearly and concisely using charts, equations, and diagrams. The text in the thesis serves to explain the data, so it is secondary. The rest of the more information can be displayed through tables, diagrams, etc. Such articles are short and concise, easy to read.

6 Conclusion

The overall conclusion of the paper should be summarized as a series of phrases or short sentences. Do not repeat the conclusions stated in the results section unless special emphasis is necessary. The conclusion is not a simple summary, but a newer level of analysis and explanation, which should clearly show the significance of the research work.

7 experimental part

Chapter titles including all experimental sections are in one-to-one correspondence with the results section.

2.4 Key takeaways

Write an outline of your thesis early. Don't wait until the study "ends"; it never ends.

The outline should organize data in an easy-to-understand manner such as tables, equations, charts, diagrams, etc., rather than plain text.

Sort by data importance, not chronologically. An important detail of dissertation writing is the distribution of the weights of the various parts. Beginners tend to organize their texts in chronological order: they elaborate on experimental projects, starting with their valuable initial failures, and reaching their peak of success. This is extremely wrong. It should start with the most important results, and if there are secondary results, then describe them in order. Readers usually don't care how you reach a Q & A conclusion, but instead focus on the result itself. The short length is obviously more readable.

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