In order to better improve the safety of microbial foods, the development of microbial inspection technology has become very important. The following is a food microbiological paper organized by Xiaobian for everyone's reference.
Food Microbiology Paper I: "A Brief Introduction to Thoughts on Food Microbiology Experimental Teaching"
[Paper Keywords]: Food Microbiology Experiment Teaching Experiment Open Management
[Abstract]: In the teaching of food microbiology experiments, this article carefully considers and summarizes the aspects of carefully selecting experimental content, effectively organizing and managing experimental teaching, introducing comprehensive evaluation mechanisms, and strengthening open management laboratories, with a view to ensuring that experimental courses are safe, orderly, and successful To achieve the teaching purpose.
Experimental teaching is an important part of higher education teaching activities. Through the experimental lessons, students can not only deepen their understanding of the classroom content, consolidate the theoretical knowledge they have learned, but also cultivate students' ability to integrate theory with practice, analyze and solve problems, and play a positive role in active thinking and improving the ability to innovate. effect.
Food microbiology is a compulsory specialty course for food students, and is an extension of general microbiology. Food microbiology is a practical and highly applicable discipline. It requires students to master systematic food microbiology detection technology, separation and purification technology, identification technology, fermented food preparation technology, and food on the basis of systematic learning of basic theoretical knowledge. Processing and fresh-keeping technology and modern molecular microbiology experimental methods. Through the teaching of food microbiology experiments, high-skilled personnel who not only have rich theoretical knowledge, but also master modern biotechnology and are proficient in operation are trained.
How to strengthen the organizational guidance of food microbiology practice teaching, how to mobilize students' enthusiasm, and improve the effect of experimental teaching have always been our concerns and exploration. Let's briefly talk about the problems we encountered in the teaching of food microbiology experiments, the methods to solve them, and the thinking on some problems.
1 Carefully select experimental content to motivate learning
With the rapid development of the food industry and microbiological detection technology, the content of food microbiology and its experimental courses has also been continuously expanded, and experimental courses are not only limited by the progress of theoretical course content, but also by objective conditions such as class hours and laboratories. It is absolutely impossible to systematically and scientifically complete all experimental items of food microbes in a limited class time. This requires our experimental teachers to combine the development of modern science and technology and the research of food microbes on the premise of mastering the microbiology syllabus. Dynamic, well-designed experimental lesson teaching system and reasonable selection of experimental items.
We choose experimental content from shallow to deep, from perceptual to rational. First, students are required to observe common bacteria, yeasts, molds, and lactic acid bacteria in food, to grasp their characteristics and culture and growth conditions. Learn to identify which are beneficial bacteria and which are harmful bacteria, and use the metabolic activities of beneficial bacteria to make more fermented products, improve the quality of food, and prevent harmful bacteria from causing spoilage and food poisoning. Secondly, representative fermented food is selected as the experimental content to enable students to understand the entire process of producing fermented food by using microorganisms. Through these experiments, students have an overall impression of food fermentation, and they can learn by comparison. Finally, design experiments on different foods and fermented foods so that students can master food microbiology detection technology, separation and purification technology, and identification technology. In the classroom, he introduced the cutting-edge development of the food industry based on his own scientific research results and food research hotspots.
In the process of experimental design, not only confirmatory experiments, but also comprehensive and design experiments are introduced. Students are divided into groups of students, allowing students to choose the raw materials from the experimental design, prepare experimental materials, reagent configurations, and culture media. The preparation and sterilization are completed by the students themselves, and finally a standardized experiment report is written. The students are very enthusiastic about this. Sweet wine, yogurt, and fermented bean curd are all fermented foods that their classmates like and make. In this process, students will learn what they have learned and be familiar with the operation steps of each link, which will greatly help students to enter the society in the future and work independently on the job.
2 Strengthen basic skills training and effectively organize and manage experimental teaching
Food microbiology is carried out on the basis of mastering the basic experimental skills of microorganisms. It is very important for students to cultivate the concept of aseptic operation, correctly use, and master experimental equipment of microorganisms, such as optical microscopes and sterilization equipment. But for many reasons, these basic skills of students are still very weak, so as long as we involve these basic knowledge in each step of each experiment of food microorganisms, we will give emphasis and demonstrate it in person.
The cultivation and formation of students' basic microbial skills can not be completed in one or two lessons, nor can they be mastered only by a teacher's presentation. Each student must do it himself. However, in the actual teaching process, due to the increase in the number of students, constraints on hardware and other conditions, a set of experimental equipment is unrealistic, so under the condition of limited manpower and resources, each student can operate and be familiar with the experimental process. It is especially important to effectively organize and manage the experimental teaching process.
(1) First of all, the teachers and experimental technicians do a good job of pre-experiments, and they have a good idea of the key steps and key operating points of the experiment. They should be emphasized during the teaching process and analyze the problems that may occur in a certain step. result.
(2) Before each experiment, the teacher and experimental technicians actively communicated with each other about the experiment, not only communicating the items and materials prepared for the experiment, but also negotiating the organization process of the experiment.
(3) In the course of the experiment, the teachers and experimental technicians need to cooperate with each other and give full play to the role of the student cadre and group leader. The biggest difference between classroom theoretical teaching and experimental classes is that experimental classes pay more attention to students' hands-on participation, and timely resolution of problems found in the experimental process. (4) The teacher must be stricter than the law, the teacher must strictly ask himself, be patiently guided during the experiment, warmly help, answer every question raised by the students, and correct incorrect or irregular operations at any time.
3 Strengthen the evaluation of experimental courses and introduce comprehensive experimental evaluation
The experimental class results are given, often including the two aspects of experimental class attendance and experimental report results. Therefore, teachers are first required to attend attendance carefully, and only when the student's attendance is guaranteed can the teaching activities be effectively organized. Secondly, it is required to write the test report in a standardized way, complete the test report in detail, discuss the experimental results, and analyze the reasons for the failure of the experiment. At the same time, the teacher also seriously revised the experimental report. The experimental report is a summary of the experiment and a test of the quality of the experimental course. By correcting the experimental report, you can discover the students' ability to perform experiments and observe and analyze problems.
In actual teaching, the similarities between experimental reports and plagiarism are more common. In order to comprehensively evaluate students' practical skills and mastery of experimental skills, it is recommended to introduce comprehensive experimental evaluation at the end of the future: the experimental projects will be designed into different experimental topics, so that Each student randomly selects and completes the operation independently within a limited time, and is graded based on the completion. For example: "Plate culture of common fungi in food" examines aseptic operation and preparation of culture media, and plate inoculation technology for common fungi in food; "Observation of morphology of common fungi in food" examines Gram staining The identification of each fungal morphology. During the specific assessment process, the content of each assessment can be quantified to determine the detailed scoring standards, and the students will be scored on the spot according to each operation link, and the students will be asked questions on the spot to allow the students to reply.
4 There are plans to promote laboratory opening and strengthen laboratory open management
The opening of the microbiology laboratory is a useful supplement to the food microbiology experiment course. It can strengthen, consolidate and improve the understanding of the food microbiology curriculum. We encourage students to design and develop their own scientific research projects, and the school has very good funding to support it. However, open laboratories are not unconditional, and sometimes the safety hazards caused by improper experimental operations are very serious and unpredictable. Therefore, management must be strengthened when the laboratory is open.
Establish a scientific management mechanism, use the campus network to build an experimental website, and publish the title, time and place of open experimental projects for students to choose and make appointments.
The special person is responsible for the student's scientific research team. Special personnel are responsible for the bacteria, standards, and toxic and harmful substances used by the students, pay attention to storage, do not discard it, and do harmless treatment. Register the students who use the instrument, and pay attention to cleaning, returning, and handing over the experimental items.
In short, the food microbiology experimental class can only improve the understanding of experimental teaching activities, carefully select the experimental content, reasonably and effectively organize and manage the experimental process, and strengthen the evaluation of the experimental class. On this basis, promote the opening of the laboratory to students and strengthen The management of the open laboratory can ensure the safe, orderly, and successful completion of the experimental class, achieve the teaching purpose, and make the students really gain something.
 Lai Jianping. Strengthening the Experimental Teaching Reform of Food Microbiology from the School of Cultivation of Students' Creative Ability [J]. Guangdong Chemical Industry, 2007, 2: 77 ～ 79.
 Pan Lei. Research and Practice of Laboratory Open Management [J]. Experimental Technology and Management, 2007, 9: 131 ～ 133.
 Tao Siyuan, Preliminary Study on Teaching Reform of Food Microbiology Experiment Course [J]. Journal of Liaoning Administration College, 2005, 4: 211 ～ 212.