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社会论文 > 农村研究论文 Papers > Social Papers > Rural Research Papers

Talking about Exploiting New Realms of Contemporary Rural Studies

编辑: 毕业论文 Release time: 2016-08-19 Editor: Graduation Thesis

Abstract: This paper analyzes the two different cognitive methods of class analysis and economic and social history analysis formed in the study of rural issues in China in the 20th century. Based on this, we propose that our current research on rural issues should make great efforts Breakthroughs have been made in contemporary rural economic and social aspects, and four aspects of research methods should be paid attention to.

Paper Keywords: Research on Rural Issues, Rural Investigation, Class Analysis, Economic and Social Analysis

The study of China's rural issues in the 20th century has gone through a complicated process, forming two different cognitive methods of class analysis and economic and social history analysis.

The results of Mao Zedong's investigation and research on rural issues are the main representatives of the class analysis method. Peasants were the main force of the Chinese revolution. Mao Zedong once said that the Chinese revolution was essentially a peasant revolution. The investigation of peasants and rural social classes formed the theoretical basis of Mao Zedong's thoughts on China's new democratic revolution.

Mao Zedong paid attention to social investigations throughout his life, including rural investigations.

As early as the end of 1925, Mao Zedong investigated the situation of farmers in his hometown and organized peasant struggles. In January 1926, Mao Zedong published the article "Analysis of Various Classes in Chinese Peasants and Their Attitudes to Revolution", a preliminary analysis of rural social classes. In January 1927, Mao Zedong conducted another investigation in the five counties of Xiangtan, Xiangxiang, Hengshan, Suanling, and Changsha, and later published the (Hunan Peasant Movement Investigation Report) article, enumerating 14 major events organized by farmers in rural peasant associations. Refuted the various censures of the peasant movement within and outside the party at that time. This was the beginning of Mao Zedong's research on China's rural areas. He later said that before the spring of 1927, he had "learned some situations of various classes, but this understanding It is extremely superficial and not profound at all "; after examining the peasant movement in Hunan," the understanding of the combination of rural classes is still not well understood. "

Mao Zedong's research on the countryside was the most valuable in the 1930s.

After the failure of the Great Revolution in 1927, Mao Zedong led the struggle for the Autumn Harvest Uprising and the establishment of the Jinggangshan Revolutionary Base. In November 1927 and February 1928, Mao Zedong conducted rural investigations in Ninggang and Yongxin, but the investigation materials of these two counties were lost when the Red Fourth Army left Jinggangshan in January 1929. The investigation materials of the five counties in Hunan in January 1927 were also lost due to Yang Kaihui's sacrifice. In May 1930, Mao Zedong said: Losing these investigation materials, especially the two materials from Hengshan and Yongxin, "makes me think about it often and never forget it forever."

In the early 1930s, Mao Zedong did many valuable rural investigations and left some investigation reports. Among them, the "Xunwu Investigation" written in May 1930, and the "Renaissance Investigation" written in October 1930, 1933. The "Nagaoka Township Survey" and "Caixi Township Survey" written in November of the year were the most important.

Where is the importance of Mao Zedong's rural survey in the 1930s?

First, Mao Zedong gradually gained a clear understanding of the social and economic conditions of rural China and the economic and political conditions of various classes. In January 1926, Mao Zedong divided the rural social classes into large landowners, small landlords, self-cultivated farmers, semi-self-cultivated farmers, semi-beneficial farmers, poor farmers, hired farmers, Eight classes, including rural craftsmen and nomads. In the 1930 "Xunwu Investigation", Mao Zedong classified the rural society into landlords (including large, medium, and small landlords), rich farmers, middle farmers, poor farmers, artisanal workers, unemployed migrants, and hired farmers. They account for 3.445% of the rural population, rich farmers account for 4%, middle farmers account for 18.255%, poor farmers account for 70%, artisan workers account for 3%, nomads account for 1%, and employment accounts for 0.3%. If we compare the process of the Chinese revolution, we can see that Mao Zedong's division of the rural class and his estimate of the proportion of the rural population are basically correct. In fact, the "rich landowners in rural areas" mentioned in the "Xunwu Survey" accounted for 7.445% of the population, which should be more in line with social reality. Its shortcoming is that the concept of the landlord rich peasant population is not very clear. In today's words, the landlord rich peasant population mentioned here can include two explanations of landlord rich peasant elements and all landlord rich peasant family populations. This problem was not resolved until the end of 1947 to the beginning of 1948. At that time, it was clearly stipulated that rich landowners accounted for 8% of the total rural households and 10% of the total population. An estimate of 10% of the total rural population. In addition, Mao Zedong himself said that he did not analyze the middle peasants, hired peasants, and rogues; in the original land relationship, he did not understand the land conditions occupied by rich peasants, middle peasants and poor peasants. Nevertheless, the conclusion that rich landowners accounted for 7.445% of the rural population analyzed in the "Xunwu Survey" is undoubtedly an important theoretical and policy result.

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