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Two historical divisions between Chinese and Western democracy

编辑: 毕业论文 Release time: 2016-08-19 Editor: Graduation Thesis

Two historical divisions between Chinese and Western democracy


Abstract: China and the West have experienced two historical divisions in democratic systems. The first division took place during the origin of their respective countries. The west went to city-state democracy and China went to authoritarian centralism. The second division took place in modern times. The West chose the three-division system and China chose the People's Congress system. These two divisions were caused by a series of historical and geographical reasons, and led to different political paths between China and the West. At the same time, these two divisions also show that the people's congress system is in line with China's current national conditions and historical traditions, and is an inevitable choice for the Chinese people.
Keywords: democratic system; historical division; people's congress system; separation of powers

The evolution and spread of modern political civilization. Making democracy increasingly a sacred value, so that any government today must obtain legitimacy from "democracy." However, the sacred nature of democracy does not mean the reality of democracy. The people become a reality and must rely on the support of an effective democratic system. In China today, this support point is the people's congress system. Historically, the democratic system in China and the West experienced two Oita divisions. This was caused by a series of historical and geographical reasons, and the consequences of the two divisions caused China and the West to take different political paths.

I. The first historical division: city-state democracy and authoritarian centralization

The original social form of mankind was primitive society. In primitive society, primitive people exercised democratic management of social affairs. This is primitive democracy. With the birth and development of the country, primitive democracy gradually died out. in the West. It was replaced by a city-state democracy, with Athens, the ancient Greek city-state being the most typical. In China, it was replaced by the state-state feudal system. . This is the first historical division between Chinese and Western democracy.

The city-state democracy was implemented in most of the ancient Greek city-states, with Athens being the most typical. Its distinctive features are: direct democracy, sovereignty in the people, rule by turns, lottery elections and majority decisions. City-state democracy has greatly mobilized the political enthusiasm and ingenuity of city-state citizens, and created the city's prosperity and prosperity. However, after all, city-state democracy is just the product of human beings entering the period of civilized society, and there are inevitably many defects. For example, the majority decision only emphasizes the majority decision without understanding the need to protect the minority. It is precisely because the city-state democracy lacks the principle of protecting minority interests and does not guarantee the basic rights of citizens and the concept of freedom of speech and belief. Many outstanding thinkers and scientists such as Socrates and Protagora have been mistaken by public courts. judgment. This is a tragedy caused by the simple emphasis of the majority principle in city-state democracy. Later, the majority principle became a tool for the party to fight, causing great harm to the city-state. An important reason why Athens lost to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War was the turmoil in the domestic politics and the slowness and mistakes in decision-making caused by the extreme majority principle.

The state feudal system was a transitional system in ancient China. It mainly existed during the Shang and Zhou dynasties. It was an intermediate form of the development from primitive democracy to autocratic centralized system. Compared with the city-state democracy, it has two significantly different characteristics. One is that the state-administered area is significantly larger than that of the Greek city-state, and hierarchical management is implemented. According to statistics, in the narrow and rugged ancient Greek peninsula, there were nearly 200 independent city-states, and in the vast and flat Central Plains of ancient China, the Zhou Dynasty "seals more than 130 ( The number of states is not testable "," 'By the end of the Zhou Dynasty, the number of states was even smaller. Whether it was the "Spring and Autumn Five Bullies" or the "Warring States Seven Heroes", their land area was larger than that of the ancient Greek city states. Athens is tens of times, hundreds of times even more. The state implements hierarchical management. Monarchs, doctors, scholars, civilians, and slaves are the basic classification of the state. According to the "ceremonial" system, the levels are different. The obligations are also different, and the status hierarchy is hereditary. Although the citizens of the Athens city-state also have hierarchical distinctions, after a series of political reforms in the past 100 years, all city-state citizens have almost equal political rights, and the city-state's rulers It is elected by the citizens of all city-states and has fluidity. The second is that during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the "communal masters of the world", the states of the nations all originated from (separated from) a royal family, and they all support this royal family. The unification of the country laid the historical foundation for the real unification after Qin. The Greek city-states developed independently, not only because they originated from a royal family or city-state, but also did not share the same support for a royal family or city-state. The difference between the state and the city-state reflects the ancient times. The gradual break-up between China and democracy, China is moving towards an autocratic and centralized system. After the Qin Dynasty unified China and established a centralized state, the ancient Chinese government system began to take shape. This is the authoritarian centralized system. Autocratic and centralized system. There are two main characteristics: first, the autocracy of the monarch, that is, the decision of the central government is made by the emperor's personal dictatorship. The emperor combines the highest power of the country in one, from the decision-making to the exercise of military, political, and financial power. The second is the centralization of power. It is aimed at the decentralization of the locality. It is characterized by the lack of independence of the political, economic, and military aspects of the local government. It must strictly obey the orders of the central government, and everything is subject to the central government. As a consequence of authoritarian centralization, the local and central government must obey The emperor alone, the monarch above all else, everything in the world is determined by the monarch.

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