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哲学论文 > 中国哲学论文 Papers > Philosophy Papers > Chinese Philosophical Papers

Nationalism and Nation-State Construction

编辑: 毕业论文 Release time: 2016-08-19 Editor: Graduation Thesis

[Summary of content] This article describes the manifestation of national identity in ancient China, that is, the identity of a family with one surname by identifying with Confucian culture. After the rise of the modern western nation-state, Chinese modern historians named "China" by imagining the history of the "Chinese nation" and constructed our national history. And because the Chinese nation-state is still under construction, we are facing many ideological obstacles and arguments. Only through the establishment of a democratic system and the return of cultural identity can we turn nationalism from an emotion into an idea.

[Keywords] nationalism; nation-state; cultural identity

One

A well-known British historian Eric Hobbsbaum wrote a pamphlet called "National and Nationalism", which begins with an imaginary story: One day after the nuclear war catastrophe, a After the interstellar historians from outside the galaxy received the news that the earth was destroyed by nuclear war, they crossed the galaxy and came to the devastated earth to explore the cause of the destruction of the earth. After a detailed investigation, he will find: "If you want to have a glimpse into the history of the earth from the two centuries ago, you must start with the concept of 'nation' and its derivations." ① The story itself seems a bit Alarmist, but it put "nations" at the core of world history for two centuries, highlighting the fundamental changes that the rise of nations has brought to the world landscape. For decades, scholars have done a lot of theoretical work on the issue of nationality and nationalism, but until today, there is no uniform standard for the definition of "nation". As a kind of thought and emotion, nationalism has already stepped on the stage of history, which has greatly affected the course of history.

For China, the concept of modern nationality did not officially appear until the late Qing Dynasty. Ancient China was neither a nation-state nor nationalism in a modern sense. When we speak the word "China" today and present the imagination of the Chinese territory in our heads, we have presupposed a subjective definition of "nation" for history. The term "China" is used to refer to the current territory only after the rise of the nation-state and the establishment of political institutions. The ancient Confucianism said that "self-cultivation, Qi family, governing the country, and peace of the world", of which the concepts of "home" and "world" are roughly the same as what is said today, and the concept of "nation" is completely different from today. The ancient "country" did not refer to the state, but to the court. The ancients did not have the concept of "nation" or "nation". They always added their native place and dynasty before their names, and their place of origin and dynasty were not related to the nation. Only in the late Qing dynasty, the Western gunboats opened the door to China. At that time, people faced foreign nation-states for the first time, and thus created their own national and national consciousness in the process of facing Western nations. As Liszt said, it seems that only under the threat of the dominant nations marching into their powers to merge, will the aggressed people develop a shared national sentiment and unify with the outside world. After the late Qing Dynasty, facing the danger of being divided up for the land that they have lived and cultivated for generations, people have aroused a sense of political identity in a strong crisis of survival. The most prominent manifestation of this kind of political identity is the slogan of the Boxer from " "Anti-Clearing the Ocean" to "Helping the Clearing Ocean", and finally it comes down to the identification of "China" as an independent country and the "Chinese nation" as an independent nation.

In creating a nation-state, Sun Yat-sen considered the Chinese to be "too free" from the opposition between the individual and the country. He said, "How exactly is the term freedom used today? If you use an individual, it will become a piece of sand. Wan It can no longer be used by individuals. It must be used by the country. Individuals must not be too free, and the country must be completely free. "② Sun Yat-sen's opinion reflects that China's nationalist thinking has risen and the nation-state has not yet been established, and national identity has not been The resulting situation. And Sun Yat-sen's criticism exposed the issue of how to build a cohesive country through political integration after the germination of nationalist ideas. In terms of the relationship between nationalism and nationalism, today's nationalists always presuppose that the so-called "Chinese nation" and "China" have existed since ancient times and have passed down civilization for 5,000 years. However, from a historical perspective, it is not because of nationalism that there is nationalism, but that there is nationalism. Nation is the product of the rise of nationalism. As Hobbsbaum said: "Nationalism predates the establishment of a nation. It is not the nation that created the state and nationalism, but the state and nationalism. It created the nation." With a vision of seeking identity, he went back to history and imagined history as a change in the subject of a nation, so he transformed history into a change in a nation. Through this preset and imagined "nation" to write history, describe history as a linear process from birth to development of a nation. This writing, which established "nation" as the subject of history, constructed the history of a nation with words and words, so a nation was born in the process of writing history! With today's "China" vision, writing the national history of "nations" in a modern sense has become a process of building a nation-state.

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